The way you manage styles can make or break a long-running web project. Keeping things modular helps a great deal, but that’s only part of the solution.
Six months ago we had a go at setting up CSS unit tests for our UI components. Brilliant decision, as it turns out! Since then, our job is a lot nicer. The speed of development is fast and steady. Each of us on the team is now coding with confidence, without the fear that things might unexpectedly break.
And here’s how we did it:
Let’s start with a story. Over a year ago I started developing a UI framework. Initially, it was similar in scope and stack to Twitter Bootstrap. A LESS monolith with around 20 well-documented, kinda-independent components – some of them sprinkled with a pinch of JS. Development went really smoothly at first. We quickly shipped a successful prototype, very well received. We ended up with another contract for developing the long-term project itself.
With another big goal down the line, we faced scaling our framework way over what we then had. To meet a tight deadline, we took other developers on the team. After all, a bigger team means that things go faster – that’s how it’s supposed to work, isn’t it?
Well, not in our case. As soon as more people laid their hands on the project, serious problems began.
When your team grows,
CSS gets hairy
“Why is this CSS rule here? What happens if I change it? Looks good in this view, should be okay.” That was the way we used to develop our components. One of them created back then by an external contributor has been a source of countless bugs over the last months. No-one knows what his CSS was meant to do and what to pay attention to when changing it. Whenever one of us has to extend that component, he has to summon all his courage and pick the only choice he has. It’s a very brittle way, which we call…
until it works.”
Even if the change works well in one test view, we have no way of knowing if it doesn’t break another view or the live app itself.
The uncertainty of the poking-around approach leads to another problem – stylesheets growing fat over time. “Why is this CSS rule here? This view looks good if I change it, but what if the change breaks another view? I’d better add a new class and use the new one instead.” Everyone keeps adding stuff to the CSS, rather than reusing, optimizing or cleaning up existing code. There are some stunning numbers related to this at the end of the article.
Before we see the solution, let’s take a broader look at the problem itself. CSS was originally designed to power simple websites – and it’s a wonderful tool for that. It’s amazing, how quickly you can get up and running creating beautiful UI nuggets, which work across all platforms and devices. Just a few lines of CSS make a pretty decent button:
But since CSS appeared in 1996, the web has changed beyond recognition. We’re now delivering full-blown apps with beautiful, immersive user experiences. Like never before, we’re living the “write once, run anywhere” dream. Web apps run without installation on any device and adapt to the size of the screen, network availability, user permissions, pointing device, viewing mode, browser support and other factors.
A modern web frontend
has zillions of moving parts
Let’s focus on CSS. We all know the problems with CSS at scale. We know the feeling when you discover a visual bug caused by that line of CSS changed weeks ago at the other end of your app. We know how much harder it gets with every new member on the team.
The key to moving fast is to embrace change – or even drive change. Move forward with confidence, without looking back.
Eradicate your team’s fear of change.
This should be priority number one until nobody
worries about changing a line of code again.
Facebook used to say “move fast and break things” – but a couple of years ago they announced in a famous keynote: “Breaking things wasn’t helping us to move faster, because we had to slow down to fix these bugs and it wasn’t improving our speed”. Following this conclusion, they changed their motto to “move fast with stable infra”.
But what exactly does it mean to “not look back”? What exactly does “stable infra” mean? How to make sure nobody worries about changing code? Eric Elliott gives us another hint in his series of thought-provoking articles:
Write automated tests
for every feature
and every bug fix.
We definitely found this to be true with libraries doing business logic.
Heavy refactoring. Taking new people on the team. A major rebase. Swapping out a dependency. Getting rid of dead code. Resurrecting code months after the last commit. Handing projects over. These things happen day to day in an environment of constant change. Without unit tests, you might be facing days, weeks or even months of tedious work. But when a good suite of unit tests has your back, each of these is a breeze.
But what about CSS? How is it possible to keep a similar pace of development there?
Writing unit tests for CSS is a lot easier than it looks. If you’ve already written these for other languages, you’ll feel right at home.
This section is structured like a simple tutorial – feel free to follow along or play around with the live snippets. Just make sure you’re using an up-to-date version of Chrome or Firefox. At the end of the article, I’ll explain how to run the tests headlessly and get the workflow more automated.
Our task is to solve the perennial problem of centering an element within its parent both horizontally and vertically. We’ll do this in a test-driven manner and go on to see how this helps keep a steady pace of development in a UI-heavy project.
First of all, let’s install the good and simple test library tape. You could do this all with tape itself, but we’ve written a kinda-plugin for it to make CSS unit tests much more elegant: tape-css. Let’s install that as well. The last tool we need is hyperscript – it’ll help us create test DOM trees more conveniently. So here’s our test boilerplate, along with a sample test and assertion:
Now, let’s make sure we know exactly what our element should do.
.parentshould take up the whole width and height of its container.
.childshould grow and shrink to fit its contents.
.childshould be centered horizontally within its
.childshould be centered vertically within its
Let’s translate this to tests, which will automatically make sure our requirements are met. Since we’ll be working a lot with positioning, let’s define a simple helper function for that:
Now we have that covered, we can write the tests themselves:
By the way, we’ve just done a very healthy thing – we’re thinking about what we want to do before we actually do it.
If you switched to the Result tab above, you surely noticed that our tests fail. No wonder – we haven’t written any styles yet! Let’s do it right now. To keep things simple, we’ll write the styles as a raw string right inside our test file. In the real world, you’d probably want to import them from a CSS module, a raw CSS file, or a preprocessor like JSS or LESS. There we go:
Now let’s wire that up with all we’ve written so far. Et voilà! Our component is ready.
tape-css is a thin API wrapper over tape which adds two additional options to the original config of the
styles. tape-css will take the
dom element along with all its ancestors and add it to the
<body> before the test begins. It’ll also clean up by removing the element after the test has ended.
styles work very similarly – they are added as a
<style> element to the
<head> before the test and cleaned up after the test ends.
Since tape prints TAP output to the JS console, it’s very easy to process in different ways. If you want to check out what the raw TAP stream looks like, go ahead and open your browser console. Right now! You should see the raw TAP results of our test above. Pretty cool, isn’t it? We’ve used tap-browser-el to format the results in the live snippets, but you can also make TAP pretty directly in the browser console and in the terminal.
Speaking of the terminal, there are also multiple ways to run CSS test in a fast headless environment, directly from your terminal. The best tool I’ve found for this is tape-run. It starts a lightning-fast instance of electron, directs the output to the console and gives you a
1 exit code. All within a fraction of a second! You can also use tape-run to run your tests in any good old traditional browsers installed on your system or CI server, such as Chrome or IE.
Come to think of it. You once had to click through your whole app in different browsers to look for visual errors. Well, with unit tests you no longer have to! All you need is push your changes and a CI server like Travis can do all the heavy testing for you. If anything goes wrong, you get an email notification with a detailed bug report from your unit tests. Because…
…a failing test should read
like a high-quality bug report.
All that happens in the background, before it has a chance to affect any users. Now we can really move fast and confidently.
Pretty cool, isn’t it?
Remember the first problem with CSS at scale I mentioned? In my experience, regressions are common in a traditional CSS project led by a bigger team. Let’s see how unit tests help rule them out.
float: left line in our test? Doesn’t seem very logical, does it? If I saw that in a project I were to clean up, I bet I’d think it’s an old leftover. So let’s try to take out the
Amazing, isn’t it? The tests not only spotted a problem, but also told us what the problem is! If you want to investigate it yourself with developer tools, change the second
test(…) call to
test.only(…) – you can find the rendered DOM right inside your
By writing CSS unit tests each of us can tell others exactly what he meant to achieve with his styles.
I mentioned another problem at the beginning of the article. Remember that guy stacking foam blocks? When people need new features, they just keep adding things to the CSS, instead of reusing what’s already there.
So let’s see how our CSS unit tests help us keep our stylesheets lean.
Say, the designer comes to us with the next cool thing on his mind. Now we need not one element centered within a parent – but two of them, stacked one under the other.
The immediate idea is to create a new component for that, or an extra modifier for our existing one. This all means more code. But maybe, just maybe, it might be possible with our little component – without adding any new classes? Let’s check that by adding some new requirements to our existing ones:
- If we have two
.childelements, they should be stacked one over the other.
.children should be centered horizontally.
- The distance above the first
.childshould equal the distance below the second one.
Here’s how it translates to new tests:
Of course, our new tests will initially fail. But what if we take another approach:
A look at the results… Victory!
Hey, let’s have a look at what we’ve just done. We added another feature by actually reducing the amount of code! And we’re absolutely sure that our previous features work alright. Now that’s what you call responsible development! After all, we all know that…
…the best code
is no code at all
This wasn’t possible before with CSS. It’s an amazing thing, if you ask me!
Here’s some stunning numbers I promised you earlier. About 15 months of developing the project traditionally (the poking-around approach) in a team of 1 to 2 developers – and the built stylesheet weighed around 190 kB. 6 months of test-driven development onwards, with a team of 3–5, and we’ve just grown the stylesheet by 40 kB! Don’t get me wrong – we’ve been shipping features way faster than ever! It’s just that now we have a lot more opportunity to extend, reuse, remix and slim down what’s already there.
Writing unit tests for the UI is a whole new quality of development in the world of CSS. The only other form of automated UI rendering tests I’m aware of is integration testing by comparing screenshots. In my opinion, though it does help spot regressions faster, it doesn’t really make you move faster. You can’t write your tests before implementing stuff. You can’t automate it fully. You can’t run the tests in different browsers without significant infrastructure overhead. Oh, and it’s way too slow for a live development workflow – whereas proper unit tests deliver you results within milliseconds of saving the stylesheet.
We’ve always wanted to move fast with CSS. It looks like this dream is coming true right before our eyes. With CSS modules on their way – and a plethora of different ways to keep your styles modular and DRY – the only thing left until now was a way to develop with confidence. It’s now there!
CSS is finally entering
an era of sanity
Before you go, I’d like to share two small facts with you.
Firstly, the example you’ve seen in the tutorial isn’t a contrived case made up for the blog post. It’s the exact story of one of our production components. To make the story more interesting, the component
middle which does that is a low-level component, which other components mix in as an internal dependency. After the fundamental change we explored in the No more fat stylesheets section, all dependent components continued to work without a glitch.
Secondly, what we’ve just tested is positioning and dimensions – the hardest and most important things to get right with CSS. But with tools like
getComputedStyle and sort-specificity you can actually test anything you want. We started out by testing dimensions, but experience taught us to test virtually everything. That’s right, 100% code coverage on CSS components! (We’re even toying with the idea of a CSS code coverage tool. More details soon, hopefully!)
Warm thanks for Ossi Hanhinen, Barboros Can Konar and Scott Corgan for reading through previous versions of this article and suggesting improvements.
If you’ve got any comments, ideas you’d like to share or critical thoughts, don’t hesitate to leave a comment below or give me a shout at @architectcodes.
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